The Republic of Somalia got its independence from Italy and British because earlier “The Great Somalia” was under the federation of Italian and British colony. From 1969 to January 1991, Mohamed Siad Barre took control of Somalia as a dictator.
In 1991, his regime was ended in the result of civil war. That civil was paid by clan-based guerrillas who were manipulated by an international interference when Muhammad Said Barre successfully took control of Organdy in Ethiopia.
Muhammad Said Barre was a strong leader who couldn’t get defeated by Ethiopian but was defeated by his own clan-based rebels.
After civil war, Said Barre was overthrown from power and conflict continued and country lacked effective centralized government which resultant in a self-governing state named Somaliland.
The world didn’t recognize that state even after 28 years of independence where the state government successfully maintained discipline, peace and brotherhood.
In addition to that, in 1998, autonomous region of Putland was self-proclaimed in the northwest and in 1997, Djbouti (famous as French Somaliland) was separated.